What is Bending?

In an industrial context, “bending” has two main interpretations: the force applied to bend an object and the process that deforms the material. This section will introduce the bending process in manufacturing and provide relevant information.

What is “Bending”?

Bending is the process of applying force to an object to deform, twist, or bend it. Typically, when a force is applied to an object, it deforms. Upon removing the force, the object might return to its original shape. However, if the applied force exceeds a certain limit, the object might lose its original shape and strength, leading to damage. Some materials, like metals, heated resins, and wood, will permanently deform under stress without losing their original strength. This property is utilized in the “bending process.”

Materials Used in Bending and Their Applications

Bending is commonly used in metal sheet and stamping processes in industrial metalworking. Below are materials used for bending and their applications:


Metals are typical materials for bending due to their ductility, which suits the bending process. Forms of metal used include sheets, rods, and tubes. Common metals used are iron, steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and copper.

  • Sheets:Sheet metal parts, stamped parts, corrugated sheets, rolled products, can manufacturing, etc.
  • Rods:Rebar, furniture, construction components, machine parts, etc.
  • Tubes:Furniture, construction components, machine parts, etc.


Bending is generally performed on thermoplastic resins, which soften when heated. For sheet or tubular resins, bending is done by heating them without losing their shape. Common materials include acrylic, polycarbonate, PVC, and ABS.

  • Sheets:Containers, covers, machine parts, etc.
  • Tubes:Containers, machine parts, etc.


While less common than metal, wood bending is widely used, particularly in furniture making, known as “bentwood processing.” This involves applying force and heat or moisture to bend wood, which can be applied to both solid wood and composite boards like plywood.

  • Sheets:Furniture, construction materials, daily items, etc.
  • Rods:Furniture, construction materials, etc.

Bending Metal

Bending metal, especially sheet metal, is quite common and involves various methods:

Sheet Metal Working: This process uses universal molds and pressure equipment to bend metal sheets, detailed in the next chapter.

Stamping: This method uses specialized molds and stamping equipment to process metal sheets. Common items produced by stamping include pots, metal strainers, staples, badges, and automotive body panels. The shape of the mold determines the shape of the product, making it suitable for mass production despite higher initial costs.

Rolling: This involves passing metal sheets through three staggered rollers under pressure, mainly used for making large cylindrical surfaces and pipelines.

Can Manufacturing: This refers to methods for producing cans, pipes, and large structures.

Sheet Metal Working

Sheet metal working involves bending metal sheets, including stamping, rolling, and can manufacturing. It uses pressure equipment with universal molds to bend thin metal sheets up to 7mm thick.

Bending Process Mechanism

Sheet metal bending techniques include:

  • Die Bending:The most common bending method, also known as press bending. It allows for V-bending, U-bending, L-bending, etc., depending on the die shape.
  • Air Bending:Also known as partial bending, this method adjusts the punch stroke to vary the bending angle.

In bending, the workpiece is placed on a fixed mold, and pressure is applied from the moving upper mold to bend the sheet. Thus, if the workpiece isn’t secured on both sides, bending cannot be performed.

Additional points to consider when modeling and designing sheet metal parts include:

  • Design Tips:To maintain the position near bends and prevent hole deformation.
  • Attention to Cutting Near Bends:Reasons and solutions for unexpected part processing based on drawings.
  • Six Key Points:For sheet metal modeling and design, illustrated with examples.


Bending involves applying force to deform, twist, or bend an object. It is widely used in industrial settings, especially with metals and resins, though also applicable to wood and other materials. One method of bending metal is sheet metal working, using universal molds and pressure equipment to bend thin sheets. Gmetalparts supports sheet metal working and provides online quoting and ordering.

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